Data Analysis The audio files produced by the recording equipment in MP3 format were transcribed verbatim and imported into Dedoose, an on-line qualitative analysis program that facilitates coding, sorting, and displaying mixed method data. Bandura stated that human behavior is learned from watching and interacting with other human beings. The demographic questionnaire was followed by a description of focus group procedures and ground rules. Informed consent was a two-stage process: Many of the women also endorsed positive emotional experiences of AI, including that it was more intimate than vaginal sex, and that it was something they reserved only for special partners. Upon arrival at the focus group location, participants were first informed about the nature of the study and all associated risks and benefits. Method Focus group methods were selected to uncover the wide range of reasons that drug-abusing women may have for engaging in heterosexual anal intercourse.
Focus groups were also preferred by the participating outpatient drug treatment program because participants were familiar with group activities and settings. The increased risk of HIV transmission through anal intercourse has been well documented in studies of homosexual and bisexual men; however, there has only recently been interest in documenting comparable risks among heterosexual samples. This inductive process resulted in a hierarchically organized codebook containing codes and subcodes that emerged from the data itself. When these omissions were left out of the calculations, kappa increased to. Interest in anal intercourse has also come from research in human immunodeficiency virus HIV transmission. The second stage consent process required the women to give separate consent to have the focus group digitally recorded for later transcription and coding. Harawa and Adimora linked high incarceration rates among both men and women in the African American community with HIV through a number of mechanisms, including the role incarceration plays in reducing the number of male sexual partners available to African American women. Of course, as The New Civil Rights Movement notes , it's possible that the rates for heterosexual men and women experiencing anal sex as well as those experimenting with same-sex partners may actually be slightly higher in Partner concurrency and the higher transmissibility of HIV through anal intercourse also make studying heterosexual anal intercourse compelling in the United States where the prevalence of HIV is high mainly in ethnic minority samples, such as African American and Latina women who have sex with men McLellan-Lemal et al. Their model includes alcohol and drug use and high-risk steady partners who have been linked to anal intercourse. Negative emotional experiences of AI included feelings of shame, disgust, and being offended by something her male partner did, such as spitting on his penis for lubrication. In the United States, general population surveys have suggested that the prevalence of anal intercourse among heterosexuals has increased over time Leichliter, None of the women refused to be audio taped. Center for Disease Control and Prevention Report 1. As can be seen in Fig. In the third phase, Dedoose was used to mark excerpts from the transcripts. The focus groups were constituted so that all the women in each group were of the same ethnicity; group 1 was African American, group 2 was Latina, and group 3 was White, but group 4 was mixed with approximately equal proportions of African American and White women. The current study sought to examine why heterosexual women engage in anal intercourse. Research with women who have male partners recently released from jail or prison has also yielded high rates of anal intercourse Bland et al. The resulting sample consisted of 32 women from diverse ethnic backgrounds: Due to the limited nature of previous research on this topic, we opted for a more exploratory approach aimed at uncovering the broad range of reasons that women had for engaging in anal intercourse. The codebook was then uploaded to Dedoose and used to assign applicable codes to the excerpts. Although each participant was not required to answer each question, the facilitator did encourage participation from all women and made efforts to elicit diverging perspectives. Each of these codes and sample quotes are described in detail below. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Past experience with AI including emotional and physical reactions was identified. According to the U.
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