Brain differences between homo- and heterosexuals[ edit ] Brain wiring comparisons of homosexuals and persons of the opposite sex show that homosexuals may be born with a predisposition to be homosexual. Key biological factors in sex determination Sex hormones Steroid hormones affect gene expression and other cell processes. If you were a fruit fly and smelled male pheromones, you would show a strong and consistent response. A study in which participants of various age groups who were asked to perform the Iowa Card Task produced data showing that males and females differ in their decision making processes on the neurological level. It is this combination of genes and environment that determines our brain structure. They have an advantage on processing speed involving letters, digits and rapid naming tasks. Despite the patchwork structure of our brains, there seem to be neuroanatomical differences between the average man and woman.
Open access research in Nature Communications. However, results from males do not always apply to females. Females have two X chromosomes while males have one X and one Y chromosome. She also used PET scans to view blood flow to the amygdala. Infant males who exhibited lesions on their orbital prefrontal cortex struggled with object reversal experiments, but females exhibiting such lesions did not have impaired performance in object reversal. However, following exogenous estradiol injections, the number of new neurons in the hippocampi of females reached levels equivalent to those found in the hippocampi of males. Recognition of social cues was an advantageous characteristic because it ultimately maximized offspring and was therefore selected for during evolution. The Royal Society has recently released a special issue on sex differences in the brain. Studies have found that oxytocin improves spatial memory. The amygdala and hypothalamus are also sexually dimorphic larger in boys than girls. A similar process might happen with brain structures on a more complex level. Moreover, sex is associated with gender — the personal and societal perception of your sex. But you are not a fruit fly. The same is for heterosexual men and homosexual women. In homosexual women and heterosexual men, there were more connections from the right amygdala. Furthermore, organization of this structure during development is influenced by the presence of androgens and testosterone. This is evident when comparing medial amygdala volume of male and female rats, adult male brains have a medial amygdala of greater volume than do adult female brains which is partially due to androgen circulation. Specifically, males have an advantage in tests that require the mental rotation or manipulation of an object. It is this combination of genes and environment that determines our brain structure. This in turn influences cognitive reasoning; women use more verbal strategies than men when performing a task that requires cognitive thinking. The larger eigengap shows that the female connectome is better expander graph than the connectome of males. LeVay's results were not replicated in other studies. However, this concept is not new and we can observe such compensations on other levels. Neuroscience and sex-related differences Neuroscience has studied brain volume differences in children, adolescents and adults. How often did you exercise? Through molecular, animal, and neuroimaging studies, a great deal of information regarding the differences between male and female brains and how much they differ in regards to both structure and function has been uncovered. The authors looked at the volume of brain regions and connectivity between them to select the areas that differed most between the sexes.
Video about neuroscience and sex:
Trans Issues and Studying Sex (Debra Soh Pt. 1)
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