The parent-adolescent immigration status measure was created such that dyads in which both parents and youth were born in the U. Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Also consistent with these predictions is research on parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, which suggests that greater discrepancies in acculturation status are linked to more problematic parent-adolescent relationships e. Family Background Information T1 Mothers and fathers reported on their education levels and household income. To recruit participants, letters and brochures describing the study goals in English and Spanish were sent to families with Latino 7th graders in five public school districts and five parochial schools. Data were available from 7th graders at T1. Because of the Mexican cultural emphasis on respect for elders and the maintenance of age-based hierarchies within families Knight et al. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth.
Family Background Information T1 Mothers and fathers reported on their education levels and household income. Eligible participants included adolescents and their families i. From early to middle adolescence, parent-to-friend influences were stronger than friend-to-parent influences, but in middle to late adolescence using a separate cohort of youth , the associations from parent-to-friend and friend-to-parent were similar in strength suggesting more mutual influence De Goede et al. Given the lack of existing research, we explored these associations across adolescence, but did not advance a specific hypothesis. Abstract Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence. An example item was: Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. Specifically, research suggests that youth who immigrate to the U. Thus, household income and parental education were controlled for in all analyses. Parent-Adolescent Immigration Status Mothers reported if they and their 7th grader were born in the U. From a sociological perspective, Glass, Bengston, and Dunham propose that parents and youth who are raised within similar social environments e. Such research suggests that parents and adolescents of different immigrant backgrounds may differ in their endorsement of familism values. Interviews were completed with adolescents and their families. A third native Spanish speaker reviewed all translations and discrepancies were resolved by the research team. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. Because of the Mexican cultural emphasis on respect for elders and the maintenance of age-based hierarchies within families Knight et al. Thus, adolescence is an important period to investigate the bidirectional linkages in parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We focused on Mexican American youth, an understudied and rapidly growing segment of the U. The length of U. Further, as we elaborate below, we expected that adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status may moderate some of these associations. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Also consistent with these predictions is research on parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, which suggests that greater discrepancies in acculturation status are linked to more problematic parent-adolescent relationships e. Thus, close and supportive relationships with parents in early adolescence may provide a foundation of skills that youth emulate in their friendships in middle adolescence. Immigrant parents reported their length of U. Interviews lasted an average of two hours at T1 and T3, and one hour at T2.
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